Prostate Adenocarcinoma

Prostate Cancer, known as Prostate Adenocarcinoma, is a malignant tumor, which has originated in the prostate gland. Cells from the tumor are studied in the laboratory, by a pathologist, to help decide how fast the tumor is growing and how widespread the cancer is. This process is called Gleason Grading and Staging.

Prostate Cancer Background Information
Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor that begins in the prostate gland. Normally about the same size and shape of a walnut, the prostate is a glandular organ found in men. The prostate glad is located just below the bladder, in front of the rectum, and surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries the urine out of the body. Most of the time, prostate cancer grows very slowly. However, especially in younger men, it can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body.

  • Men over age 50 should have a PSA test and digital rectal exam each year
  • Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer found in American men, other than skin cancer, with about 181,000 new cases diagnosed in the United States each year.
  • Although men of any age can get prostate cancer, it is found most often in men over 50.
  • More than 80% of men with prostate cancer are over the age of 65.
  • Significant risk factors of prostate cancer include: age, race, diet, and family history.

Treatment and Follow-up
The treatment options for prostate cancer depend in part on whether the tumor has spread. For tumors that are still inside the prostate, radiation therapy (using x-rays that kill the cancer cells) and a surgery called radical prostatectomy are common treatment options. “Watchful waiting” is also a treatment option. In this approach, no treatment is given until the tumor gets bigger. Watchful waiting may be the best choice for an older man who has a higher risk of dying from something other than his prostate cancer. Generally, tumors that have grown beyond the edge of the prostate can’t be cured with either radiation or surgery. They can be treated with hormones that slow the cancer’s growth.

Watchful Waiting:
This is a reasonable choice for some men. This approach is suggested if the tumor is small and is still in the gland. Prostate cancer often grows slowly and many older men may never need treatment.

Surgery:
Surgery’s main function is to remove the cancer from the body. There are two main types of surgery that are used for prostate cancer patients. One of them is a radical prostatectomy which is the removal of the prostate gland. The other is cryosurgery which is freezing of the prostate.

Brachytherapy:
This therapy is when one or more radioactive pellets are surgically implanted into the prostate. The radioactive pellets will radiate the prostate and surrounding tissue over time and kill the cancer cells.

Radiation Therapy:
This treatment is when external beam of high-energy x-ray kills or shrinks cancer cells. Radiation is used most often for killing small tumors that have not spread outside of the gland or in advance situations as a form of pain relief by shrinking the tumor size.

Hormone Therapy:
Most prostate cancers need testosterone in order to grow. Lowering the testosterone levels can make the cancer shrink or grow more slowly. The main method is by medication, injection, or treatment.

Chemotherapy:
This therapy uses anti-cancer drugs to kill cancer. This treatment is used most often for patients in advanced stages to slow the tumor grow and reduce pain.

This report is intended for patient education and information only. It does not constitute advice, nor should it be taken to suggest or replace professional medical care from your physician. Your treatment options may vary, depending upon medical history and current condition. Only your physician and you can determine your best option.

Additional Resources